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Henri Fayol Part 2
Some powerpoint slides:
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Social Science Info Gateway
Working With People and Teams - SQA Unit
Henri Fayol - Classical Management Theory
Henri Fayol was one of the first theorists to claim/believe that
Management was an acquired skill and was a key figure in the
turn-of-the-century, Classical School of Management theory. He outlined
five main functions of managers which were based on a much broader 14
Principles of Management
The Functions of a manager were:
1. To Plan
and these were based on the premise of the principles of management:
1. division of labour
Looking at both these groupings in greater detail.
1 Division of Labour was quite simply the belief that specialisation
encourages continuous improvement in skills and the development of
improvements in methods. He didn't believe in the modern ideas of
multi-skilling. To him this would have been in effect multi "getting by"
2 Authority was the RIGHT to give orders and the power (this is very
different from authority-later notes on French & Raven) to exact
obedience. He believed without authority then managers could not manage
and anarchy would ensue with workers doing as they pleased.
3 Discipline involved the idea that no slacking or bending of rules
would be allowed. Rules were in place for a good reason and to alter or
deviate from them, showed a weak manager and an undisciplined workforce.
In practice this involved - standards, consistency of action, adherence to
rules and values
4 Unity of command was in fact a very simple concept. Fayol firmly
believed that each worker should have only one boss and should be clearly
aware of who that was. This generalisation still holds - even where we are
involved with team and matrix structures, although it is much more
difficult in practice. The basic concern of having more than one boss is
that tensions and dilemmas may arise.
5 Unity of direction was also a relatively simple concept. Fayol
believed that the organization should have a single plan of action to
guide managers and workers towards common goals. It should be a simple
fact that if everyone is "pulling" in the same direction then the goal
will be achieved faster, more effectively and efficiently.
6 Fayol believed that the common good (of the organisation) should
override any individual's wishes or desires. Fayol's line was that one
employee's interests or those of one group should not prevail over the
organisation as a whole. Of course often these two interests should
overlap, but there may be occasions where this is not the case. Fayol's
work - assumes a shared set of values by people in the organisation - a
unitarism where the reasons for organisational activities and decisions
are in some way neutral and reasonable.
7 remuneration of staff concerns itself with " the price of services
rendered. " The general principle is that levels of pay/remuneration/
compensation should be "fair" and as far as possible give satisfaction to
both to the staff and the firm.