Organisational Theories, Models, People
An Historical Timeline with Links

Before it all

500BC Sun-Tzu - Art of War - there are many sites with copies and extracts from Sun Tzu's Art of War - this site links into Project Gutenberg's etext of the treatise. This site has is a straight text version

1525 Machiavelli - The Prince - the strong, authoritarian benevolent leader - often misinterpreted - read this paper - The Hubris of Management which offers a useful re-examination. There are a number of sites about him, particularly philosophy/political science sites. The Bola site (which I recommend elsewhere) looks at him from a management angle with a clear outline of his ideas and major work.

Industrial revolution (C18th) rise of factories, supervision, division of labour - work ethic concept

1776 Adam Smith- Wealth of Nations - ethics, division of labour, job specialisation, self interest, theory of moral sentiments

1800 - 1920's

Charles Babbage - division of labour - computing pioneer

Max Weber (1864-1920) - Sociology- bureaucratic organisations

Henri Fayol 1916 - 5 management functions, theory - defining 14 principles of management Click for more detail

Henry Gantt (1861-1919) the Gantt chart scheduling multiple overlapping tasks

Mary Parker Follett - participation - universal goal, principle, and Law of the Situation

Karl Marx
Frederick W Taylor
- Principles of Scientific Management, 1911

Rise of Scientific Management 1900's - 1920's
efficiency and includes bureaucratic, scientific and administrative management - Classical school Site with collection of many of his papers, archives etc.

Frank & Lillian Gilbreth - Time and Motion Studies refined some of the work of Taylor

Henry Ford - industrial efficiency and mass production

Industrial Psychology begins - 1920's

Hawthorne Experiments 1924 - 1933 Whitehead, Elton Mayo, and Homans, led by Fritz Roethlisberger - identified the Hawthorne Effect - social needs as motivators

1930: Elton Mayo (more details) "Human Problems of an Industrial Civilisation"

Concept of the 'learning curve'

Human Relations school 1930's-50's

1930's Roethlisberger and Dickson "Management and the Worker"

Tolman Expectancy theory

1940 Chester Barnard - Functions of the Executive - conditions for acceptance of excutive/management authority

1940's Group dynamics - Lewin, Bion

Contingency theories

FreudHerbert Simon - informal processes, decision making

Moreno - sociometry

R K Merton - studies on bureacracy and manifest & latent functions in organisations

Operational Research

Deming (14 points) and Juran begin formulating their ideas on Quality & Culture

Maslow Motivation and Personality - hierarchy of needs.

Systems theory -1940s & WWII continuing development up to this day


Lippitt - group theories & leadership

Kurt Lewin - group decision making

Homan - group systems

Herzberg job enrichment - 2 factor theory - hygiene and motivation

Drucker - objectives rather than social relations - less hierarchy, leaner organisation

Organisation man

McClelland - Learned Needs Theory

McGregor (late 1950's) Theory X and Y management

Likert - management - 4 types

Bennis on Leadership

Rice and Tavistock


B.W.Tuckman (1965) - group stages

Leadership theories - Feidler

Chris Argyris - psychological contract

Decision theory - contingency view of management

Socio- technical school - Trist & Emery

Group facilitation

Soft Management

Organisational dynamics

Leavitt - organisational change diamond model

National Training Laboratories - Sensitivity Training

Managerial grid

Drucker - knowledge workers and knowledge intensive organisations


Affirmative action equal opportunities

Awareness, consciousness raising training

Mintzberg 10 managers roles - 6 work characteristics- 3 categories

Human Potential movement

Michel Foucault - institutions

Barnes & Stalker - organic organisations

Chris Argyris - double loop learning

Roger Harrison - organisational structures

Quality Circles


Action learning - Revans, Pedler

Rosabeth Moss Kanter - women and corporations - organisational change

Michael Porter - 5 forces - competitive strategic advantage

Management by objectives - Ansoff

Entrepreneurial managing

Information technology

Pascale - Japanese management, quality and Kaizen



Tom Peters & Robert Waterman - Excellence, 7 S model, chaos

Organisational Cultures

Charles Handy - shaping the future - federalist structures


Peter Senge Fifth Discipline & Fieldbook -Learning Organisations

Richard Pascale - transformation v change

Hammer - Re-engineering organisations

Knowledge Management

Empowerment - Ricardo Semler's examples in 'Maverick'

Gareth Morgan - cultures and change - imaginization

Core competencies - Hamel & Prahalad

Chaos and complexity - Michael Lissack

Balanced scorecard - Kaplan & Norton

Now - 2000+

Portfolio careers Charles Handy

Cross cultural understanding and learning - Hofstede, Trompenaars

Human Equation

Emotional Intelligence

Virtual Organisation



Reassertion of importance of branding


Intellectual capital